Applied Scanning Probe Methods V: Scanning Probe Microscopy by Sadik Hafizovic, Kay-Uwe Kirstein, Andreas Hierlemann

By Sadik Hafizovic, Kay-Uwe Kirstein, Andreas Hierlemann (auth.), Professor Bharat Bhushan, Satoshi Kawata, Professor Dr. Harald Fuchs (eds.)

The scanning probe microscopy ?eld has been quickly increasing. it's a difficult job to gather a well timed review of this ?eld with an emphasis on technical dev- opments and business functions. It turned glaring whereas enhancing Vols. I–IV that an enormous variety of technical and applicational points are current and quickly - veloping around the globe. contemplating the luck of Vols. I–IV and the truth that additional colleagues from prime laboratories have been able to give a contribution their newest achie- ments, we determined to extend the sequence with articles touching ?elds now not lined within the prior volumes. The reaction and aid of our colleagues have been very good, making it attainable to edit one other 3 volumes of the sequence. not like to- cal convention lawsuits, the utilized scanning probe tools intend to provide an summary of contemporary advancements as a compendium for either sensible functions and up to date uncomplicated examine effects, and novel technical advancements with recognize to instrumentation and probes. the current volumes conceal 3 major components: novel probes and methods (Vol. V), charactarization (Vol. VI), and biomimetics and business functions (Vol. VII). quantity V contains an summary of probe and sensor applied sciences together with built-in cantilever recommendations, electrostatic microscanners, low-noise equipment and better dynamic strength microscopy ideas, high-resonance dynamic strength - croscopy and the torsional resonance procedure, modelling of tip cantilever structures, scanning probe equipment, techniques for elasticity and adhesion measurements at the nanometer scale in addition to optical functions of scanning probe concepts according to near?eld Raman spectroscopy and imaging.

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1 Integrated Cantilevers and Atomic Force Microscopes 13 Fig. 10. Block diagram showing the analog actuation signal chain. 2 Digital Signal Processing The advantages of digital signal processing have their foundations in the predictability of the respective performance. The fabrication spread of electrical components does not affect the performance of digital circuitry. The systems are inherently interference-free and long-term stable. The tuning of components, which is often necessary for analog circuits, becomes obsolete.

The cantilever actuation signals as coming from the DSP unit are converted to the analog domain by 10-bit flash DACs and provide together with analog square root circuits linear actuation characteristics. 5 µm. 1 Measurements Two prototype applications were selected to show the performance of the monolithic AFM microsystem: (1) surface imaging and (2) force-distance measurements. Only the imaging mode will be shown here. For force-distance measurements, we refer to [35]. For surface imaging, the x-y-scanning function of a Nanoscope III (Digital Instruments, USA) was used, and the microsystem was operated in contact mode.

This shift can either be directly measured, or it is indirectly accessible via amplitude or phase measurements. The readout and actuation boundary conditions for dynamic mode operation are very different from those for the static mode. To achieve a good bandwidth of the overall scanning probe system, a cantilever featuring a resonance frequency of 50 kHz requires readout and actuation rates of at least 500 kHz. Higher sampling rates allow for a shorter integration time of the lock-in detection units and for a reduction of the signal contribution of harmonics, which result from the actuation.

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