Applied Polymer Light Microscopy by A. D. Curson (auth.), D. A. Hemsley (eds.)

By A. D. Curson (auth.), D. A. Hemsley (eds.)

Synthetic polymers make first-class specimens for mild microscopy. regardless of this, using the process, at the least in its complex types, isn't so frequent as could be anticipated. even supposing trustworthy and proper facts are tough to discover and quantify, apparently in different fields of fabrics technological know-how and expertise there's a higher readiness to tum to the microscope in learn, in business challenge fixing, or for caliber evaluate and keep watch over. It additionally turns out that the explanations for the current state of affairs are partially old, partially the results of the constitution of the plastics and rubber industries, and partially the schooling and coaching history of senior employees who are usually chemistry or engineering established. In neither box does mild microscopy characteristic strongly within the simple education. the first objective of this publication is to supply a few perception into the diversity oflight microscopy ideas appropriate to polymeric specimens, and to spotlight usual functions to advertisement polymers and polymer items. the place applicable, the optical strategies concerned are mentioned in a few element. although, it has no longer been the purpose to supply a gentle microscopy textbook facing the foundations and layout of the elemental tool. Many such texts can be found, and chosen examples are brought up within the reference checklist on the finish of such a lot chapters.

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In practice the condenser NA is kept somewhat smaller, especially when using crossed polars to observe the crystalline texture of the polymers (see Chapter 3). The effective condenser NA is controlled by the diameter of the aperture iris in the front focal plane of the condenser lens. The setting of this diameter forms part of the standard setting-up procedure for Kohler illumination described elsewhere. 2 Failure to optimize this setting has an adverse effect upon image quality. An answer to the first objection relies on the fact that a non-periodic object can be regarded as a set of periodic objects added together.

A more satisfactory approach is as follows. Select a thin (0·8-1·0 mm) slide and put it on a hot-plate at about 60°C. Deposit on it four drops of a selected resin spaced so as to give eventual support to the sample (see Fig. 13). When cured (after 20-30 min), remove the slide and allow it to cool. g. a section preparation jig, grind the hardened pips down uniformly using 600 grit silicon carbide until their thickness together with that of the slide is no more than 1·2 mm. Clean and dry the slide and cement the polished surface of the specimen to the slide using the pips as supports (Fig.

Curson Incorrect Setting Sample Surface Correct Setting FIG. 11. Setting the knife angle for steel and TCT knives. knives. This arises from the need to take account of the small honing bevels to be found on such knives and which are not easily discernible to the naked eye. The problem and its solution is illustrated in Fig. 11. The solution is to start with an angle of about 5° between the back of the knife and the surface of the sample and to attempt to take consecutive sections of 1 pm thickness.

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