By Jeremy J Ramsden
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Extra resources for Applied nanotechnology : the conversion of research results to products / [...] XD-US
In some cases scientiﬁc results were made use of with excellent results; in others with disastrous results;16 there are many other examples of both excellent results and disasters obtained without any scientiﬁc backing. Hence, historical evidence does not allow us to conclude that a scientiﬁc research backing guarantees success in a technological endeavor, but rather shows that many other factors, most prominently political ones, intervene. One very positive aspect is that at least this decoupling of science from technology prevented the growth of distortions in the unfettered, disinterested pursuit of objective truth, which almost inevitably becomes a casualty if wealth instead is pursued.
2. Given that the granting of a patent—in other words the proposed. The weakness of the system is exacerbated by the slowness of the submission and approval process—roughly two years elapses between having the initial idea and starting the research council-funded research. And, inevitably with this way of organizing things, the report of the completed work to the research council becomes an end in itself. The scientist must be seen to have fulﬁlled what was contractually required of him, not least since the success of future proposals may depend on the quality of his ﬁle maintained by the research council.
D. Bernal, The Social Function of Science. London: Routledge (1939). J. Pethica, T. Kealey, P. J. Ramsden, Is public science a public good? Nanotechnol. Perceptions 4 (2008) 93–112. J. Ramsden, S. Aida and A. Kakabadse (eds), Spiritual Motivation: New Thinking for Business and Management. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan (2007). 5 The Time Course of Innovation Creative Destruction What Drives Development? Can Innovation be Managed? The Effect of Maturity Further Reading 31 34 37 37 38 39 Although the dictionary deﬁnition of “innovation” is simply “the bringing in of novelties”, it has in recent years become a more narrowly deﬁned concept much beloved especially by government ministries and their agencies charged with animating economic activity in their countries.