By Walfried Michaelis
Within the early Nineteen Eighties, woodland decline turned an issue of public and medical predicament whilst woodland stands with Norway spruce (Picea abies [L. ] Karst. ) confirmed obtrusive harm on a wide geographical scale all through Europe. The motives of the saw indicators couldn't be elucidated at the foundation of the kingdom of data at the moment. as a result, a number of learn tasks have been introduced either in Germany and in another nations so as to determine the suitable pathogenic elements. In 1985, the Federal Ministry for study and expertise determined to incorporate the positioning "Postturm", wooded area district Farchau/Ratzeburg, within the spon sorship of the examine on woodland decline as a domain regular for lowlands and a sphere of anthropogenic city impact. The research sector is positioned approximately forty krn east-northeast of the town of Hamburg. seeing that spruce timber particularly confirmed critical decline, emphasis was once laid in this species. The programme all started in 1986 and prolonged to 1992, with a few actions con tinuing past this time. operating teams from thirteen associations took half within the total undertaking.
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Additional resources for Air Pollution: Dimensions, Trends and Interactions with a Forest Ecosystem
2. L+ I Vo ~ [em/s] Literature data + Measurements at the "Poslturm" site -, r-----Ilf----- I I I I I I I I I / --_ ..... lm] Fig. 2. Deposition velocities of airborne particulates onto a spruce stand. Curve I Experiments with artificial monodisperse, radiolabelled aerosols. Curve 2 Studies on the basis of natural particle deposition. See text SO Methodology for the Determination of Atmospheric Deposition seen, there is excellent agreement with other studies on natural aereosols. Therefore, the corresponding fit was used in the present investigation.
Plenum Press, New York, pp 899-923 Sehmel GA, Hodgson WH (1978) A model for predicting dry deposition of particles and gases to environmental surfaces. Batelle Richland, Washington, PNL-SA-6721 StiiBel RP (1987) Untersuchungen zur NaB-und Trockendeposition von Schwermetallen auf der Insel Pellworm. GKSS Forschungszentrum Geesthacht, GKSS 87/E/34 StiiBel RP, Prange A (1985) Determination of trace elements in rainwater by total-reflection Xray fluorescence. Anal Chern 57:2880-2885 Waraghai A, Gravenhorst G (1989) Dry deposition of atmospheric particles to an old spruce stand.
2 Throughfall Measurements Due to the inhomogeneous structure of the crown compartment, representative sampling of throughfall constitutes a particular problem. Small-scale variations can seriously falsify the results. This is valid for both the amount and the chemical composition of the throughfall. One possibility of solving this problem is the employment of a great number of samplers properly positioned within the forest. However, this procedure involves a considerable financial and working expenditure which can only be accomplished, inter alia, in the case of long sampling times and restricted trace analyses.