By Flossie Wong-Staal, Robert C. Gallo
This reference describes the most recent advances within the improvement and layout of an HIV preventive vaccine-detailing the pathogenesis and genetic variability of HIV an infection for the development of molecular and healing concepts to minimize the development and transmission of AIDS.
With contributions by means of universally famous specialists within the box, AIDS Vaccine study discusses
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Additional resources for AIDS Vaccine Research
Science 270:1811–1815. , C. Broder, P. Kennedy, E. Berger. 1996. HIV-1 entry cofactor: functional cDNA cloning of a seven-transmembrane domain, G-protein coupled receptor. Science 272:872–877. , D. Long, B. Doranz, J. Rucker, F. Jirik, R. Doms. 1996. A seven-transmembrane domain receptor involved in fusion and entry of Tcell-tropic human immunodeﬁciency virus type 1 strains. J Virol 70:6288– 6295. , M. Farzan, H. Choe, C. Parolin, I. Clark-Lewis, J. A. Springer. 1996. The lymphocyte chemoattractant SDF-1 is a ligand for LESTR/fusin and blocks HIV-1 entry.
Viral proteins such as Tat, Nef, and Vpu can downregulate cellular expression of MHC class I molecules that are necessary for CTL recognition of infected cells (233–235). Increased expression of killer inhibitory receptors may also inhibit CTL activity (236). Another mechanism responsible for the loss of CTL activity is the selective accumulation of CD8ϩDRϩ HIV-speciﬁc CTL that lack the interleukin (IL)–2 receptor and are defective in clonogenic potential (237). Finally, the ability of HIV to escape CTL responses by viral mutation or by exhaustion of CTL clones due to high concentration of antigen helps explain the loss of CTL-mediated control over viral replication (238,239).
O. Labbe, C. Mollereau, G. Vassart, M. Parmentier. 1996. Molecular cloning and functional expression of a new human CC-chemokine receptor gene. Biochemistry 35:3362–3367. K. L. M. Murphy. 1996. Cloning and functional expression of CC CKR5, a human monocyte CC chemokine receptor selective for MIP-1(alpha), MIP-1(beta), and RANTES. J Leukoc Biol 60:147–152. , J. Gosling, V. Schweickart, P. Gray, I. Charo. 1996. Molecular cloning and functional characterization of a novel human CC chemokine receptor (CCR5) for RANTES, MIP-1beta, and MIP-1alpha.