Advances in X-Ray Analysis: Volume 15 by R. L. Heath (auth.), Kurt F. J. Heinrich, Charles S.

By R. L. Heath (auth.), Kurt F. J. Heinrich, Charles S. Barrett, John B. Newkirk, Clayton O. Ruud (eds.)

The software of solid-state detectors of excessive power solution to x-ray spectrometry, and the expanding use of compu­ ters in either dimension and knowledge overview, are giving a brand new stimulus to x-ray innovations in analytical chemistry. the 20th Annual Denver X-ray convention displays this renewed curiosity in different methods. The invited papers, grouped in consultation I, overview the charac­ teristics of the detectors utilized in the size of x-rays. One paper is devoted to the detection of unmarried ions. even if the sort of topic might seem to be marginal to the needs of the Denver convention, we needs to realize the affinity of strategies utilized to comparable reasons. Ion probe mass spectrometry is devoted to projects just like these played via x-ray spectrometry with the electron probe microanalyzer. Scientists and technologists will see those thoughts mentioned within the related conferences. The dialogue of automation and programming isn't really constrained to the 2 invited audio system, yet extends to papers awarded in additional than one consultation. the problem of fluorescence research via isotope- and tube-excitation can also be of serious curiosity to these involved in the sensible purposes of x-ray thoughts. The communications contained during this quantity, and the vigorous discussions which regularly the presentation of papers, attest to the power of the topics that are the worry of the yearly Denver X-ray Conference.

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This address is uniquely defined by the memory control circuitry and the procedure R. Heath 23 is then to initiate a process which adds the number "1" to the contents of that memory location. If this same number representing the amplitude of a given pulse is entered into the accumulator of a digital processor, this information can be modified at will. For example, it might be stored in a number of different locations for different purposes, modified to change the energy scale or to correct for non-linearities or instabilities in the electronic system, etc.

Renewed interest in detecting single ions is being generated by the advent of the ion microprobe and by the extension of spark-source mass spectrometry to the accurate assay of elemental concentrations below the ppm level. Detection of single ions by pulse counting in electron multipliers dates back to 1954 in our laboratory (1). It has long been a standard technique in surface-ionization mass spectrometry. This type of mass spectrometry is used for isotope-ratio analysis of metallic elements. More recently, ion sputtering has been applied to the detection and analysis of atoms in thin surface layers.

This system with the conventional pulse-height analyzer shown in Figure 11, we see that the major difference is the arithmetic unit of the processor and the peripheral devices which permit the operator to greatly expand his capability to perform operations upon the digital data residing in the central memory of the processor. In a conventional "hard-wired" pulse-height analyzer, analysis of a pulse from the detector produces a number corresponding to a particular address in the analyzer magnetic-core memory.

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