By James Reilly
Celebrated for its historical water wheels, the city of Hama is found on Syria’s longest river, the Orontes. Ottoman Hama used to be a stopover at the significant north-south street of Syria in addition to the heart of an area financial region of its personal. Intertwined social networks associated townspeople to the peasants and pastoral nomads of Hama’s hinterland. via the early 20th century a number of elite and remarkable households had come to dominate the political and fiscal lifetime of Hama and its outlying villages, environment the level for the city’s dramatic access into Syrian nationwide lifestyles through the French Mandate and post-colonial classes. established largely on neighborhood judicial data, this publication is a social background of Hama over the past centuries of Ottoman rule. It examines the social and monetary buildings that outlined people’s lives and that conditioned their participation within the old adjustments of the eighteenth and 19th centuries. Dramatis personae contain women and men, commoners and notables, retailers and artisans, and others who, taken jointly, characterize a cross-section of a center japanese society as they entered the area of world markets, eu empires, and sleek states.
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Additional info for A Small Town in Syria: Ottoman Hama in the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries
691, awakhir Dhu al-Qa‘da 1144/ 25 May 1732; 42:396, doc. 794, awakhir Dhu al-Hijja 1145/ 13 June 1733; 46:185, doc. 409, 2 Rajab 1208/ 3 Feb. 1794; 53:43, 27 Rajab 1266/ 8 June 1850; 53:47, 29 Sha‘ban 1266/ 10 July 1850. Establet and Pascual, Familles et fortunes, 50, 55–56. 51 illegally. If gender roles were relatively fixed in this period, women nonetheless used the norms, laws, and institutions at hand to defend or assert their rights to subsistence, inheritance, and property. The Islamic law court was a forum for such contests, particularly in the nineteenth century.
815, awa’il Dhu al-Qa‘da 1146/ 19 April 1734; al-Sabuni, Tarikh Hamah, 69 n. 1, 100 n. 8. v. “Rifâ‘iyya” by C. E. Bosworth; “Sa‘diyya” by Barbara von Schlegell. 29 assured them a role in the religious, judicial and political life of Hama. 20 The establishment or consolidation of Sufi-linked notable families in Hama during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries is a noteworthy development. Sufi Islam was a highly personalized form of religion, whose adherents followed the particular means or method (tariqa) to spirituality as defined by a founding holy man or saint.
Data in Appendix 1 offer a rough guide to the relative wealth of the various quarters in the eighteenth century. It is noteworthy that the 1730s data rank at the top al-Hadir and al‘Alaylat, the respective abodes of the Kaylanis and ‘Alwanis. Comparing the first three columns of Appendix 1 with the last column also demonstrates the flexibility or ductility of the definition of specific quarters, which could vary depending on time and circumstance. 10 But the headman was not the be all and end all of quarter governance and representation; the quarter was a complex social organism, and within it were other foci of identification and representation as well.