1453: The Holy War for Constantinople and the Clash of Islam by Roger Crowley

By Roger Crowley

A gripping exploration of the autumn of Constantinople and its connection to the realm we are living in today.

The fall of Constantinople in 1453 signaled a shift in background and the top of the Byzantium Empire. Roger Crowley's readable and accomplished account of the conflict among Mehmet II, sultan of the Ottoman Empire, and Constantine XI, the 57th emperor of Byzantium, illuminates the interval in heritage that was once a precursor to the present clash among the West and the center East.

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Hung. falu, ‘village’, Vogul påβl, pāβl, pēl, Ostyak pūγət, pūγəl),39 although why the Turks would have borrowed this term from the primarily hunting-gathering Ugric peoples is unclear. By Kāshgharī’s time, kend was more often employed, especially in connection with Muslim towns. Perhaps balïq had a too non-Muslim association. Kāshgharī, who considers kend to be a Turkic word, offers the widespread usage of kend in Central Asian toponyms as proof that “all of Transoxania, from Baykend eastward is part of the Turk lands” and cites the names Semiz kend (Samarqand), Tashkend (Shāsh), Özkend40 and Tunkend,41 concluding that the names of all these cities are Turkic.

100. 22 Peter Golden ies of this chapter. In either event, the process usually involved some degree of sedentarisation on the part of some of the nomads, in particular the elites. e. states founded by nomads who continued to hold the dominant positions of political power and constituted the bulk of the population. e. 5 Scholars are just beginning to explore these long-term camps and more permanent settlements. Cities in the Turko-Nomadic World As a preface to any discussion of ‘proto-urban’ or urban ‘places of power’, something must be said about ‘urbanism’ in the early Turko-nomadic world and how the nomads viewed cities.

Abdoullaev (eds) La Bactriane au carrefour des routes et des civilisations de l’Asie centrale, Paris, 335-52. Khazanov, Anatoly (2005) “Nomads and Cities in the Eurasian Steppe Region and Adjacent Countries: A Historical Overview”, in S. Leder and B. Streck (eds) Shifts and Drifts in Nomad-Sedentary Relations, Wiesbaden, 163-78. Kiselev, Sergei V. et al. (1965) Drevnemongol’skie goroda, Moscow. Masson Smith Jr, John (1999) “Mongol Nomadism and Middle Eastern Geography: Qīshlāqs and Tümens”, in R.

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